By Muhammad Ali Mazidi
This ebook makes use of a step by step method of train the basics of meeting language programming and interfacing of the 8051 microcontroller. It makes use of many examples to explain suggestions. easy, concise examples are applied to teach what motion every one guide plays, then a pattern is equipped to teach its software. this article offers a accomplished knowing of the interior association of the 8051 registers and assets in a manner that sheds the scholars worry of meeting language. even if scholars turn into designers of stand-alone structures or complicated embedded platforms, they'll locate this article an invaluable source.
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Extra info for 8051 Microcontroller and Embedded Systems, The
Timer 0 Timer 1 Bus Control I/O Ports Serial Port Counter Inputs OVERVIEW OF 8051 FAMILY External Interrupts CPU OSC P0 P1 P2 P3 TXD RXD Address/Data HANEL Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering National Cheng Kung University, TAIWAN 14 OVERVIEW OF 8051 FAMILY The 8051 is a subset of the 8052 The 8031 is a ROM-less 8051 ¾ 8051 Family ¾ Add external ROM to it You lose two ports, and leave only 2 ports for I/O operations Feature ROM (on-chip program space in bytes) 4K 8K 0K 128 256 128 Timers 2 3 2 I/O pins 32 32 32 Serial port 1 1 1 Interrupt sources 6 8 6 RAM (bytes) HANEL 8051 8052 8031 Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering National Cheng Kung University, TAIWAN 15 OVERVIEW OF 8051 FAMILY Various 8051 Microcontrollers 8751 microcontroller ¾ UV-EPROM PROM burner UV-EPROM eraser takes 20 min to erase AT89C51 from Atmel Corporation ¾ Flash (erase before write) ROM burner that supports flash A separate eraser is not needed DS89C4x0 from Dallas Semiconductor, now part of Maxim Corp.
INSIDE THE COMPUTER CPU’s Relation to RAM and ROM For the CPU to process information, the data must be stored in RAM or ROM, which are referred to as primary memory ROM provides information that is fixed and permanent ¾ Tables or initialization program RAM stores information that is not permanent and can change with time ¾ ¾ Various versions of OS and application packages CPU gets information to be processed first form RAM (or ROM) if it is not there, then seeks it from a mass storage device, called secondary memory, and transfers the information to RAM HANEL Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering National Cheng Kung University, TAIWAN 28 INSIDE THE COMPUTER Registers ¾ The CPU uses registers to store information temporarily Values to be processed Address of value to be fetched from memory Inside CPUs ¾ In general, the more and bigger the registers, the better the CPU Registers can be 8-, 16-, 32-, or 64-bit The disadvantage of more and bigger registers is the increased cost of such a CPU HANEL Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering National Cheng Kung University, TAIWAN 29 Program Counter Inside CPUs Instruction Register Flags ALU Instruction decoder, timing, and control Internal buses Register A Register B Control Bus Data Bus (cont’) Address Bus INSIDE THE COMPUTER Register C Register D HANEL Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering National Cheng Kung University, TAIWAN 30 INSIDE THE COMPUTER Inside CPUs (cont’) ALU (arithmetic/logic unit) ¾ Performs arithmetic functions such as add, subtract, multiply, and divide, and logic functions such as AND, OR, and NOT Program counter ¾ Points to the address of the next instruction to be executed As each instruction is executed, the program counter is incremented to point to the address of the next instruction to be executed Instruction decoder ¾ Interprets the instruction fetched into the CPU A CPU capable of understanding more instructions requires more transistors to design HANEL Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering National Cheng Kung University, TAIWAN 31 INSIDE THE COMPUTER Internal Working of Computers Ex.
A Add value 42H to reg. A Add value 12H to reg. A B0H 04H 04H 21H 42H 12H Mem. addr. 1400 1401 1402 1403 1404 1405 1406 Contents of memory address (B0) code for moving a value to register A (21) value to be moved (04) code for adding a value to register A (42) value to be added (04) code for adding a value to register A (12) value to be added (F4) code for halt ... HANEL Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering National Cheng Kung University, TAIWAN 33 Ex. (cont’) The actions performed by CPU are as follows: 1.