By Brian Rappert, Caitriona McLeish
Web of Prevention offers a well timed contribution to the present debate approximately lifestyles technology study and its implications for defense. it's an informative advisor for either specialists and the general public. it's a forward-looking contribution overlaying either ends of the equation and creates momentum for the present dialogue on potent preventive measures and potent keep watch over measures. whereas there are not any promises for fighting misuse, there are still an important steps the area neighborhood can take in the direction of the overarching aim of a world community for the lifestyles sciences. This booklet sheds mild on concrete steps towards the success of this priceless objective.
"This e-book with its choice of essays presents an in-depth research of many of the collectively reinforcing parts that jointly create and boost an internet of prevention - or of coverage - that's important to make sure that the advances within the lifestyles sciences usually are not misused to reason damage. All these engaged within the existence sciences and in coverage making in governments world wide may still learn this e-book to allow them to take steps to reinforce the net fighting organic weapons".
From the Foreword by means of Dr Gabriele Kraatz-Wadsack, leader, guns of Mass Destruction department, place of work for Disarmament Affairs, United Nations.
"Since September eleven, 2001 in lots of international locations renewed cognizance has been given to how examine within the lifestyles sciences may perhaps inadvertently or deliberately facilitate the improvement of organic or chemical guns. This cutting-edge quantity examines the complete volume of the problems and debates. assurance comprises an outline of contemporary clinical achievements in virology, microbiology, immunology and genetic engineering to be able to asking how they may facilitate the creation of guns of mass destruction via kingdom, sub-state or terrorist firms. attention is given to what we now have and have not discovered from the prior. making use of either educational research and reflections via practitioners, the ebook examines the security-inspired governance regimes for the existence sciences which are less than improvement. eventually the authors research what's required to shape a entire and achievable net of prevention and spotlight the significance of encouraging discussions among scientists, coverage makers and others in regards to the governance of important yet probably risky research".
Dr Graham S. Pearson, traveling Professor of foreign safeguard, collage of Bradford, united kingdom and formerly Director-General, Chemical and organic Defence institution, united kingdom
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Additional info for A web of prevention : biological weapons, life sciences and the governance of research
The development of synthetic biology has increased fears about such potential threats. And humans are not the only potential targets. Modification or destruction of plant and animal species could wipe out food supplies and have devastating ecological consequences. Recognizing that some research could result in severe harm if misused, but that most research in the life sciences contributes to the advancement of knowledge for the betterment of humankind, the Fink committee (NRC, 2004) endorsed the approach recommended earlier for the physical sciences by the Corson Report (NRC, 1993) and embodied in National Security Presidential Directive 189, issued by President Reagan and, post-11 September 2001, supported by Assistant to the President for National Security Condoleezza Rice that: … to the maximum extent possible, the products of fundamental research [should] remain unrestricted … [and] where the national security requires control, the mechanism for control of information generated during feder- 3213 J&J A Web of Prevention 31/8/07 2:40 pm Page 21 Life Sciences or Death Sciences 21 ally funded fundamental research in science, technology and engineering at colleges, universities and laboratories is classification.
Global governance is no longer the sole domain of governments’ (UN, 2004). Another key factor is the role now played by private industry and the ‘increased contemporary significance of an upward trend in the management of global affairs by economic actors’ (Cutler et al, 1999, p4). Taken together, all of these factors have led to the emergence of ‘multi-stakeholder diplomacy’. Hocking (2006, p13) argues that: … actors, including states – commonly identified as the generators of diplomacy – are no longer able to achieve their objectives in isolation from one another.
As Scholze (2006) notes: From the Hippocratic Oath to the Russell–Einstein Manifesto, from Maimonides’s Oath to the Declaration of Geneva (the Physician’s Oath), human history reveals an abundance of pledges, guidelines and laws to regulate the relationship between professionals and society. However, increasing concerns about the new and emerging ethical aspects of biomedical research, and its potential for abuse, have led to a surge of ethical debates and their translation into a new, globally accepted codification.