Environmental Studies

Download Advances in Water Resources Engineering by Chih Ted Yang, Lawrence K. Wang PDF

By Chih Ted Yang, Lawrence K. Wang

This ebook, Advances in Water assets Engineering, quantity 14, covers the themes on watershed sediment dynamics and modeling, built-in simulation of interactive floor water and groundwater structures, river channel stabilization with submerged vanes, non-equilibrium sediment delivery, reservoir sedimentation, and fluvial tactics, minimal strength dissipation fee conception and purposes, hydraulic modeling improvement and alertness, geophysical equipment for review of earthen dams, soil erosion on upland parts through rainfall and overland stream, geofluvial modeling methodologies and functions, and environmental water engineering glossary.

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And therefore, the topology relation of the drainage network can be fully expressed by the river codes so that it is easy to realize the direct positioning for sub-watersheds. The link relation of the river reaches is defined as follows [19]:  BC = 2 × PC GC = 2 × PC + 1. 1) where PC parent node code BC left-child code of PC GC right-child code of PC. 1), all sub-watersheds in the entire watershed can be coded. 2) where [ ] downward-rounding function. 2). To make this structural drainage network codification method applicable to large watersheds, a policy of grading and subzoning following the pattern of a river’s tributaries is adopted.

This model is established on the hillslope unit to mainly 1 Watershed Sediment Dynamics and Modeling 15 Fig. 10 a A conceptual hillslope and b the hydrological processes in the DYRIM [16] represent the infiltration–excess runoff yield mechanism. The influence of ground water on a hillslope surface runoff is ignored because the unsaturated zone of the soil can be dozens of meters deep in the Loess Plateau. 10a. 10b [16]). There are two types of parameters in the water yield model. One is the invariant parameters used for describing the properties of land use and soil type, including the field capacity of a topsoil layer, free water content of a topsoil layer, field capacity of a subsoil layer, free water content of a subsoil layer, depth of topsoil layer, and water capacity of unit leaf area index (LAI), which are influenced by the basic features of the watershed and can be determined from the literature, fieldwork, and prior studies.

3 Parameter Acquisition The parameters of the DYRIM, including the geometrical parameters and the underlying surface parameters, are all spatially distributed. , vegetation cover, land use, soil type, and potential evaporation) are acquired from RS images in the format of raster data. To make the raster data match the hillslope-channel units, the central point or the polygon border of each hillslope-channel unit is used to capture the point values of the raster data [6], and the values are then counted and transformed into corresponding parameters.

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