By Andrew Hadley, Peter Soothill
The powerful prevention, analysis, and administration of alloimmune cytopenias has develop into a staff attempt related to hematologists, obstetricians, pediatricians, immunologists, laboratory technicians, midwives, and study scientists. This booklet has been written by means of specialists of their respective fields to assemble the problems of pathogenesis, epidemiology, prevention, analysis, and medical administration. This finished yet obtainable account is generally cross-referenced to stress the hyperlinks among pathogenesis and scientific sequels, among epidemiology and the explanation for screening courses, and among analysis and healing intervention.
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Extra resources for Alloimmune Disorders of Pregnancy: Anaemia, Thrombocytopenia and Neutropenia in the Fetus and Newborn
3,4 A blood group system consists of one or more antigens controlled by a single gene locus or by a complex of two or more very closely linked homologous genes with virtually no recombination occurring between them. Therefore, each blood group system is genetically discrete from every other system. 1). g. g. 006), and each antigen within the system also has a threedigit number. Thus, every antigen has a unique six-digit number. For example, the third antigen of the Kell system, Kpa, has the number 006003 and the more commonly used alphanumerical symbol, KEL3.
70 Warmerdam PAM, van der Winkel JGJ, Gosselin EJ & Capel PJA (1990). Molecular basis for a polymorphism of human Fc␥RII (CD32). Journal of Experimental Medicine, 172, 19–25. 71 Denomme G, Ryan G & Fernandes B (1997). The Fc␥RIIa-His131 allotype is overexpressed in infants with ABO hemolytic disease of the newborn. Blood, 90, 472–3a. 72 Ravetch JV & Perussia B (1989). Alternative membrane forms of Fc␥RIII (CD16) on human NK cells and neutrophils, cell-type speciﬁc expression of two genes which diﬀer in single nucleotide substitutions.
Some antigens are abundant on the red cells of adults but are present in lower quantity or absent on fetal red cells. One good example is a histo-blood group antigen, I, which is expressed on the internal structure of branched oligosaccharides of red cell glycoproteins and glycolipids. The enzyme responsible for the branching of the oligosaccharides is apparently not active in fetuses and young infants and only linear oligosaccharides are present on their red cells. Occasionally, adults have a rare phenotype in which their red cells lack I and these individuals produce anti-I.