By Marlin Wolf Ulmer
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Providers collect these orders in a collection phase and deliver the goods in a subsequent delivery phase. Customers have to attend home during this time window to receive the goods. To satisfy the time windows, dispatchers have to route vehicles considering uncertain travel times. Even though requests occur before the execution of the routing, dispatchers have to consider uncertain requests in the assignment of the time windows (Ehmke and Campbell 2014). Dispatchers aim on efficient delivery. Simultaneously, they need to consider customer satisfaction because late deliveries may result in the loss of customers and subsequent orders (Cleophas and Ehmke 2014).
3, we identify travel times, service times, customer demands, and requests as the four main drivers of uncertainty. We further identify time windows, working hours, and capacities as the major constraints and costs and reliability as the major objectives for RVRPs induced by the practical applications. Uncertainty results in the requirement for replanning. Further, a consideration of possible future events in current planning is desired. Therefore, we describe the technologies enabling replanning and stepwise planning as well as predictions of uncertain future events in Sects.
In some cases, the service to conduct is itself uncertain (Yuan et al. 2015). Many service calls arrive spontaneously during the day. Customers are often unknown (Chen et al. 2015). As a result, uncertain elements for service vehicles are mainly the travel time between customers, the required service time, and the customer requests during the day. For technician and healthcare applications, often an a priori plan is given. The frequency of plan adaptions differs. Requests for key services and breakdown vans are merely unknown and adaptions have to be conducted frequently.