By Hari Mohan Mathur
This booklet exhibits how social effect evaluation (SIA), which emerged slightly 5 many years in the past, in an effort to count on and deal with almost certainly detrimental social affects of creating dams, energy stations, city infrastructure, highways, industries, mining and different improvement tasks, is now broadly in use as a making plans device, in particular in constructed international locations. even if SIA has nonetheless now not won a lot popularity between improvement planners in Asia, the location is progressively altering. In India, SIA firstly mandated as a coverage instruction in 2007 is now a criminal requirement. SIA in China has additionally lately turn into compulsory for specific sorts of improvement initiatives. Bangladesh, Laos, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka are different Asian international locations that supply examples from a number of externally funded tasks illustrating using social impression research in venture making plans to enhance improvement results. With contributions from an array of prime specialists, this publication is a helpful source on SIA, essential for policymakers, planners, and practitioners in executive, foreign improvement organizations, private-sector undefined, deepest banks, experts, academics, researchers and scholars of social sciences and improvement reports, additionally NGOs in every single place, now not in Asia alone.
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Extra info for Assessing the Social Impact of Development Projects: Experience in India and Other Asian Countries
Finally, the discussion turns to a question that is frequently asked: Can SIAs be done objectively? Probably not, seems to be the general experience, maintains Mathur. The truth is that distortions in SIA findings often arise because of pressures from developers to obtain a favourable report by any means possible, as this helps in obtaining the project clearance. But SIAs can still be done fairly and contribute to a better development outcome. This, however, is possible only under certain conditions that include: (a) affected people are involved in the entire SIA process, and SIA is conducted in a manner that the key concerns of the community get clearly identified through a consultative process; (b) SIA is conducted in the very beginning stage of project preparation when it is easier to affect changes in the project design; and (c) most importantly, the consultant engaged to do SIA is a trained and an independent practitioner, not seen as someone working for the developer.
Social assessment policy and praxis and its emergence in China. Berghahn Books, Oxford Rickson RE, Burdge RJ, Hundloe T, McDonald GT (1990) Institutional constraints to adoption of social impact assessment as a decision making and planning tool. Environ Impact Assess Rev 10:233–243 Robinson WC (2003) Risks and rights: the causes, consequences and challenges of developmentinduced displacement. The Brookings Institution (SAISD) Project on Internal Displacement, Washington, DC. (An occasional paper, May 2003) Scudder T (1996) Resettlement.
Resettlement literature is replete with examples of such projects that were undertaken to promote development, but instead ended up leaving millions of people impoverished, in a condition worse off than before (Colson 1971; Cernea 1995; Scudder 1996; Mathur and Marsden 1998). The Sardar Sarovar dam on the river Narmada is a case in point. As Morse and Berger (1992) noted in their report on Sardar Sarovar, this project was launched without even the basic data on the number of people likely to be affected, with the result that till today the task of resettling those displaced over a quarter century ago remains unfinished, and worse, mired in an unending controversy.