Environmental Studies

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By David J.H. Phillips

Twenty years in the past, researchers wishing to spot infected components in aquatic environments as a rule took water samples, and analysed them badly (as we have now considering that came upon) for a couple of "pollutants" which have been of topical notice on the time (and that could be quantified by way of the tools then available). this day, using aquatic organisms as biomonitors rather than water research has develop into common, and plenty of nationwide and interna­ tional programmes exist worldwide related to such experiences. We think that this pattern will proceed, and feature whole religion within the method (when it truly is hired correctly). we are hoping that the next textual content assists in a few half in achieving this aim, such that the standard of our most elementary worldwide source -water - is sufficiently safe sooner or later. DAVE PHILLIPS, PHIL RAINBOW England, March 1992 vii Acknowledgements Our thank you for contributions to this e-book are because of numerous members and teams, for various purposes. to start with, a co-authored publication is often a triumph, and we belief that the next textual content is an appropriate compromise of the perspectives of 2 person authors, on a posh and constructing subject. Secondly, the various rules herein have crystallised over the past twenty years because the box has grown, and we're separately and jointly thankful to a couple of researchers for his or her perception and assistance.

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1981; Chen and Hsu, 1986). Perhaps the best-known incident of widespread environmental contamination involving dioxins occurred at Seveso in northern Italy in 1976. , 1980; Strigini, 1983). On 10 July 1976, an exothermic reaction occurred in a chemical reactor producing trichlorophenol. A safety valve broke under the pressure from the reaction, and a cloud of contaminated material was released into the atmosphere. It was later established that the material released contained significant quantities of dioxins, including the extremely toxic 2,3,7,8tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin.

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As a result of the search for and development of new monitoring techniques, the basic methods employed to monitor aquatic environments for contamination have undergone a revolution over the last two decades. Traditional methods of water sampling and their analysis for minute concentrations of contaminants have largely been replaced by a reliance on organisms to monitor pollution. The following chapters provide an overview of the initial development and present use of biomonitors for measuring the extent and degree of contamination of aquatic environments by trace contaminants.

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