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Larger alcohols such as Peter S. J. Cheetham 34 Naringin (or impure sources such as citrus wastes) ~ Organic acid or enzyme (Naringinase) Rhamnose/Glucose/Naringeninmixture ~ Purification Rhamnose/Glucosemixture f Yeast Glucoseoxidase Gluconobactersuboxydans CO2 Gluconic acid IP 5-Keto-gluconicacid Pure rhamnose ~ Crystallization Crystalline rhamnose ! 5-Dimethylfuranone ~ Solventextraction-crystallization Product benzyl alcohol were less reactive in aqueous reactions, but when the reaction was carried out in a biphasic mixture with most of the solvent being hexane, very high productivities were then obtained [28].

More conventional technologies can also be used; for instance, Yasuyuki et al. [-46] enhanced the glutamine content of the kojiderived Huki seasonings by treating them with immobilised glutaminase. Also Noguchi et al. [27] produced 51-IMP from 5t-AMP derived from ribonucleasetreated yeast using deaminase. Uses of genetic engineering also extends to useful characteristics that are only indirectly related to flavour production, such as increasing the phage resistance of lactobacillii or eliminating 13-glucan production.

Table 10. Effect of carbon and nitrogen source on aroma production by Ceratocysismoniliformis (from 1-53]) Carbon source Nitrogen source Aroma Chemicals identified Dextrose Dextrose Galactose Corn starch Dextrose Dextrose Glycerol Urea Leucine Urea Urea Glycine Methionine Urea Fruity, banana Fruity, over-ripe banana Citrus, grapefruit l e m o n Cantaloupe, tropical flower, banana Pineapple, lemon, sweet Weak potato Canned pear, peach Acetate esters, ethanol Isoamyl acetate, ethanol Monoterpenes, ethanol Decalactones, ethanol 22 Peter S.

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