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By Lee Harris

Forgetfulness happens while those that were lengthy inured to civilized order can now not be mindful a time within which that they had to wonder if their plants might develop to adulthood with out being stolen or their young ones offered into slavery through a positive foe. . . . They fail to remember that during time of chance, within the face of the enemy, they need to belief and open up to one another, or perish. . . . They fail to remember, in brief, that there has ever been a class of human adventure referred to as the enemy. "That, ahead of Sept. 11, was once what had occurred to us. The very idea of the enemy were banished from our ethical and political vocabulary. An enemy used to be only a good friend we hadn't performed adequate for but. or maybe there have been a false impression, or an oversight on our half - anything that shall we right. . . . "Our first activity is for this reason to attempt to understand what the idea that of the enemy relatively potential. The enemy is a person who's keen to die for you to kill you. And whereas it truly is real that the enemy consistently hates us for a cause, it's his cause, and never ours". So starts off Civilization and Its Enemies, a unprecedented travel de strength through America's "reigning thinker of 9/11", Lee Harris. What Francis Fukuyama did for the top of the chilly battle, Lee Harris has now performed for the subsequent nice clash: the battle among the civilized international and the overseas terrorists who desire to smash it. each one significant turning aspect in our heritage has produced one nice philosopher who has been in a position to step again from petty disagreements and spot the larger photo - and Lee Harris has emerged as that guy for our time. he's the one that has helped make feel of the terrorists' fantasies and who forces us so much strongly to confront the truth that our enemy - for the 1st time in centuries - refuses to play through any of our principles, or to imagine in any of our different types. we're all certainly reluctant to stand a real enemy. so much folks can't hand over the parable that tolerance is the nice

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The fact that such beliefs cannot be justified by science does not mean that they may not be useful or beneficial to the individual or to the society that holds them. James was primarily concerned with the religious beliefs of individuals: did a man's religious beliefs improve the quality of his personal life? For Pareto the same question could be asked about all beliefs, religious, cultural, and political. Both James and Pareto viewed nonrational belief as outside observers: they took up the beliefs that they found already circulating in the societies in which they lived and examined them in light of whether they were beneficial or detrimental to the individuals and the societies that entertained them, exactly as a botanist examines the flora of a particular region; he is interested not in creating new flowers but simply in cataloguing those that already exist.

The poison of the radical Islamic fantasy ideology is being spread through the Muslim world, through schools and through the media, through mosques and through the demagoguery of the Arab street. Does this mean that history is repeating itself? Are we again facing challenges like those we faced in our confrontations with Fascist Italy, Nazi Germany, and Soviet Russia? The answer is an emphatic no. For while fantasy ideologies may have inspired Mussolini and Hitler, the threats that they posed could always be clearly apprehended in Clausewitzian terms.

Yet even the most sensitively crafted myth requires something more in order to take root in the imagination of large populations, and this was where Mussolini made his great innovation. For the Sorelian myth to achieve its effect it had to be presented as theater. It had to grab the spectators and make them feel a part of the spectacle and not merely outside observers. The Sorelian myth, in short, had to be embodied in a fantasy— a fantasy with which the "audience" could easily and instantly identify.

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