By Adnan Tamime
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Sometimes addition of the acidic phosphate, sodium dihydrogen phosphate, is most appropriate and sometimes addition of the basic disodium hydrogen phosphate is most appropriate. , 1995). In practice, use of a pilot plant to test the most appropriate additive is the best test available to the processor as data from traditional heat stability tests are poorly correlated with behaviour of the product in commercial processing. Hardy et al. (1985) reported that a heat-stable concentrate can be achieved by means of lecithin incorporation without addition of inorganic phosphate and can be processed at a higher than usual homogenisation pressure.
Concentrated milk is less heat stable than unconcentrated milk at all pH values, especially at pH values higher than the heat stability maximum. Since the heat stability decreases with increasing solids content, the classic heat coagulation test for concentrated milk is performed at 120◦ C rather than 140◦ C as used for unconcentrated milks. , 1995). 6; however, the actual pH of maximal heat stability depends on several factors including the pre-heat treatment and concentration level. 45. Milk in which acidity develops due to bacterial growth before heat treatment can produce concentrated and dried products, which are unstable to heat treatment because of the pH–heat stability relationship.
2005) have concluded that the surface fat content rather than free-fat and total fat content correlates best with ﬂowability. The fact that high surface fat coverage is responsible for poor ﬂowability of powders was clearly demonstrated when ﬂowability was signiﬁcantly increased by removal of the fat from the surface with petroleum ether. , 2001). Millqvist-Fureby et al. (2001) used WPC to examine the effect of heat treatment of whey proteins on the powder surface composition and some functional properties of spray dried protein-stabilised emulsions.