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By Armine Ishkanian

This quantity considers the demanding situations of democracy construction in post-Soviet Armenia, and the position of civil society in that technique. It argues that, opposite to the expectancies of Western relief donors, who promoted civil society at the assumption that democratization could keep on with from the institution of civil society, democratic regimes have did not materialize, and, furthermore, a backlash has emerged in a variety of post-Soviet states. Armine Ishkanian explores how some distance the expansion of civil society is dependent upon a country's old, political and socio-cultural context; and the way a ways international reduction, frequently supplied with stipulations which inspired the merchandising of civil society, had an impression on democratization. in keeping with broad unique learn, together with fieldwork interviews with contributors, Democracy development and Civil Society in Post-Soviet Armenia considers numerous democratization tasks in recent times, and assesses how a ways the Armenian adventure is identical to, or varied from, the studies of different post-Soviet states.

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E. building democratic institutions and a market economy) which were to be promoted jointly (Howell and Pearce 2002; Lewis 1992:2). The onus was on post-socialist societies to rapidly ‘catch up’ and to simultaneously build capitalism, a new social structure, democracy, the nation, civil society, political society and new relations between the state and the new international system of power and money (Bunce 2000: 229). The transitions opened the door for ‘powerful international actors’ who began to play a very public role in policy making, raising questions about the sovereignty of leadership (Bermeo 2000: 249), not to mention the role of civil society.

While this may be the case, it is also important to recognize that there are currently many ‘managed’ democracies in which the procedural elements are present but where substantive democracy is absent. ‘Managed democracy’ (upravlyayemaya demokratiya) is a phrase that was introduced by the Russian authorities in the early 2000s and is now increasingly used to describe the situation in other former Soviet states such as Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. g. elections) of democracies exist but are controlled and managed by the authorities (Colton and McFaul, 2003).

In this new civic universe, individuals no 20 Democracy, civil society and power longer experience a shared sense of citizenship and engagement in community life (Skocpol 1999: 500). Jean Cohen questions Putnam’s assessment of the 1950s as the ‘paragon of civicness’, adding that it should not be forgotten that the 1950s were the ‘heyday of McCarthysim, institutionalised racial segregation, and exclusion of women from a wide range of economic and political institutions and associations’ (Cohen 1999: 215).

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