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24. If too many patented technologies or inputs are necessary for developing a new product, then a tragedy of the anti-commons may ensure the new product is stillborn. Development of GoldenRice®, a genetically modified rice with great potential health benefits, for example, required about 70 pieces of IP dispersed among different owners who needed to be persuaded to permit use of their IP before the project could proceed. 25. These arguments are presented in the September 2002 Report of the Commission on Intellectual Property Rights, Integrating Intellectual Property Rights and Development Policy (a report by an expert committee assembled under the aegis of the UK Department for International Development).

Although many non-OECD countries still impose restrictions on capital flows and on currency convertibility, their number is declining. The challenge is to provide emerging FOSTERING DEVELOPMENT IN A GLOBAL ECONOMY – ISBN 92-64-01014-9 © OECD 2005 33 economies with policy space while they adapt to long-term pressures for integration into global financial markets. Foreign direct investment (FDI) flows have been largely independent of capital markets. After being restricted by many non-OECD countries in the 1960s and 1970s due to fears about exploitation or about erosion of sovereignty, FDI was much more keenly encouraged after bank loans dried up after 1982.

The major obstacle to increasing the efficiency of the global economy in the 21st century is the difficulty in enforcing property rights across national borders. This appears to account for the still substantial “border effect” in trade between even close neighbours with similar institutions such as Canada and the United States. More generally, economists have become increasingly aware that the remaining obstacles to international trade are primarily “behind the border” rather than traditional trade barriers (Anderson and van Wincoop, 2004).

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