By Olle Ekberg
This publication presents a finished and updated description of the prognosis and administration of dysphagia, with specific connection with oral and pharyngeal disorder. All facets of dysphagia are lined, from anatomy and body structure to sufferer care. along descriptions of a number of illness entities, signs, and remedy ways, many different proper themes are addressed, together with endoscopic and manometric elements, malnutrition and dehydration, the psychiatric burden, and contours particular to pediatric and geriatric sufferers. The authors are with no exception popular specialists of their box. This publication can be of price to all experts desirous about the evaluate and remedy of dysphagia, together with ENT surgeons, thoracic surgeons, speech and language pathologists, phoniatricians, gastroenterologists, neurologists, and radiologists.
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Extra resources for Dysphagia: Diagnosis and Treatment
Just a small change in the ambient temperature (by 2 °C) in a warm climate is enough to inversely affect the flow rate (Kariyawasam and Dawes 2005). 5 The Diversity of the Salivary Response Pavlov drew attention to the fact that the volume of saliva secreted and its composition vary in a seemingly purposeful way in response to the physical and chemical nature of the stimulus (see Babkin 1950). Not only does the secretion adapt ‘‘acutely’’ to the stimulus, but also long-term demands may induce changes in gland size and secretory capacity.
30 receptor antagonist atropine in the treatment of the syndrome, a cotransmitter or cotransmitters to acetycholine is/are likely to contribute to the symptoms; vasoactive intestinal peptide is such a cotransmitter (Drummond 2002). The routes of the parasympathetic nerves of the minor glands (Tandler and Riva 1986) are via the buccal branch of the mandibular nerve with respect to the molar, buccal, and labial glands (postganglionic nerves originate from the otic ganglion), via the lingual nerve with respect to the lingual glands (Remak’s ganglia, intralingually located), and via the palatine nerve with respect to palatine glands (sphenoplatine ganglion).
Ekstro¨m et al. 20 vessels are in focus. Sensory nerves of glandular origin and an involvement in gland inflammation are discussed. Although, the glandular activities are principally regulated by nerves, recent findings of an ‘‘acute’’ influence of gastro-intestinal hormones on saliva composition and metabolism, are paid attention to, suggesting, in addition to the cephalic nervous phase, both a regulatory gastric and intestinal phase. The influence of nerves and hormones in the long-term perspective as well as old age, diseases and consumption of pharmaceutical drugs on the glands and their secretion are discussed with focus on xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction.